Dr. Tikk-Ringas is the senior fellow for Cyber Security at the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) based in Bahrain. She works to add a strategic cyber security dimension to a number of IISS’s programs and activities. Before joining IISS, Dr. Tikk-Ringas worked as legal adviser and the head of the legal and policy team at the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence in Estonia. She was one of the lead experts to analyze and write about cyber attacks against Estonia in 2007 and has since worked with many governments and international organizations on strategic cyber security matters. Prior to joining the NATO Centre she worked as attorney in the field of information technology, focusing on EU regulations and standards for security of private and national information systems. Dr. Tikk-Ringas serves as an international research associate at the Georgetown University Center for Law, Technology and Security and has long teaching experience at Tallinn Technical University and the Swedish National Defence College. She speaks Estonian, English, German and Russian. She holds a Ph.D. in law from the University of Tartu in Estonia.